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Investment Banking vs. Equity Research

Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Differences Between Investment Banking and Equity Research

Last Updated April 19, 2024

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What Does an Equity Research Analyst Do?

Equity research analysts closely analyze small groups of stocks in order to provide insightful investment ideas and recommendations to the firm’s salesforce and traders, directly to institutional investors and (increasingly) to the general investing public.

Over the course a year, research analysts communicate formally via research reports that place “Buy,” “Sell,” or “Hold” ratings on the companies they cover.

The timing of the publication of reports tend to be concentrated around earnings season (i.e. quarterly reports), as well as on an ad hoc basis.

Since equity research analysts generally focus on a small group of stocks (5-15) within particular industries or geographic regions, they become experts in the specific companies and industry or “coverage universe” that they analyze.

Analysts need to know everything about their coverage universe in order to make investment recommendations. As such, analysts constantly communicate with the management teams of their companies under coverage and maintain comprehensive financial models about these companies.

They quickly digest and respond to new information that hits the tape.

New developments and ideas are communicated to the investment bank’s sales force, traders, directly to institutional clients, and directly to the general investment public over the phone, and directly to the trading floor via an intercom system or over the phone.

Equity Research Report Example (PDF)

Curious to see what sort of analysis is performed by an equity research analyst?

Fill out the form below to download an equity research report published by JP Morgan covering Hulu.


Equity Research Report | JP Morgan Hulu (PDF)

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How to Become an Equity Research Analyst

If you enjoy writing, financial analysis and getting home at a reasonable hour, equity research might be for you.

If you enjoy writing, getting involved with clients and management teams, building financial models and conducting financial analysis all while getting home at a reasonable hour (9pm vs. 2am), equity research might be for you.

Research associates (that would be your title coming in as an undergrad) go through similar training to that of sales and trading analysts.

After 2-3 months of corporate finance, accounting and capital markets training, research associates are assigned to a group led by a senior analyst.

The group is made up of zero to three other junior associates. The group starts off covering a group of stocks (usually 5-15) within a specific industry or region.

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What is the Salary in Equity Research?

Investment banking bonuses range from 10-50% higher than equity research bonuses at the entry level.

At larger investment banks, both IB analysts and ER associates start with the same base compensation.

However, investment banking bonuses range from 10-50% higher than equity research bonuses at the entry level. The difference at some firms is even more acute.

Additionally, investment banking becomes more lucrative at senior levels (i.e. client-facing role).

The compensation difference is rooted in the economics of an investment bank vs. that of an equity research firm.

Unlike investment banking, equity research doesn’t directly generate revenue. Equity research departments are a cost center that support sales and trading activities.

In addition, despite a regulatory separation between equity research and investment banking (“Chinese Wall”), it also serves as a way to maintain a relationship with corporations — the very clients that use the investment bank to help raise capital, acquire companies, etc.

Nonetheless, research’s indirect role in the generation of revenue makes compensation generally lower.

Edge: Investment Banking

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Fast track your career as a hedge fund or equity research professional. Enrollment is open for the May 13 - July 7 cohort.

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How is the Lifestyle in Equity Research?

Research associates arrive to the office at 7am and leave sometime between 7-9pm.

Working on weekends is limited to special situations like an initiation report.

This schedule is very favorable compared to investment banking hours. Analysts can work up to 100 hours per week.

Edge: Equity Research

How is the Quality of Work in Equity Research?

Investment banking analysts spend a large portion of their time on monotonous formatting and presentation work.

If they’re fortunate, investment banking analysts are exposed to non-public situations such as IPOs and M&A deals from the beginning to the end of the process.

This provides real insight as to how a transaction is done from start to finish as well as how deals are actually negotiated.

In reality, however, for the first several years, the analyst’s role is somewhat limited.

They spend a large portion of their time doing monotonous formatting and presentation work. The most interesting and rewarding work is financial modeling.

Equity research associates find themselves almost immediately interacting with portfolio managers and hedge fund managers, the firm’s internal sales force and traders, and communicating the senior analyst’s investment thesis after a company reports earnings.

In addition, they develop modeling skills by constantly updating and analyzing their companies’ operating forecasts.

Another equity research benefit is that grunt work is limited to the creation of research notes and the updating of senior analysts’ marketing material.

However, unlike investment banking analysts, research associates are usually not exposed to the M&A, LBO, or IPO process from start to finish, as they are only privy to public information.

As a result, they don’t spend nearly as much time building those types of financial models. The modeling focus is primarily on the operating model.

Edge: Equity Research

What are the Exit Opportunities from Equity Research?

Equity research associates usually aspire to switch over to the “buy side” (i.e., to work for the portfolio managers and hedge fund managers that sell-side researchers disseminate reports and ideas to).

The buy-side offers the allure of an even better lifestyle, and an opportunity to actually invest (to put your money where your mouth is).

That said, the buy side is extremely competitive, even for research associates. Many associates must enhance their profile by obtaining a CFA charter and/or hitting business school before moving on up into the buy side.

Investment banking analysts typically pursue MBAs, start their own business or try to move directly into private equity after their analyst stints.

Generally, equity research is looked at as favorably as investment banking for certain buy-side firms, whereas transaction-focused firms like private equity and VC firms generally prefer investment bankers.

MBA programs generally look at investment banking and equity research equivalently, if perhaps a slight edge for investment banking.

Edge: Investment Banking

Scorecard: Investment Banking vs. Equity Research

  • Compensation: Investment Banking
  • Lifestyle: Equity Research
  • Quality of Work: Equity Research
  • Exit Opportunities: Investment Banking

In conclusion, while a career in equity research might be less glamorous than investment banking, it deserves a close look.

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January 12, 2016 2:31 pm

Hi there, I had an extremely basic question – isn’t equity research a part of investment banking? As such, when we compare ‘IB’ to ER here, are we just comparing a part of the whole to the whole? What constitutes IB (as in what kind of jobs are we comparing… Read more »

Haseeb Chowdhry
January 12, 2016 9:19 pm
Reply to  Vishwa

Investment bankers are the professionals working with companies to execute corporate transactions (equity / debt raises, mergers and restructurings).

Equity research analysts write reports and value companies on a periodic basis – they cover specific sectors.

November 3, 2015 9:59 am

I am in my 3rd sem of PGDM and want to become an IB but before getting into IB want to do CFA .

Should I wait till the the completion of CFA or should start with any firm.

Haseeb Chowdhry
November 3, 2015 12:28 pm
Reply to  Keshav

I would get started on applying to jobs – experience is immensely valuable…

July 6, 2019 1:59 am
Reply to  Keshav

That’s amazing. I am just gaining my education to become an IB. Do you have any pointers?

Jeff Schmidt
July 6, 2019 4:59 pm
Reply to  Duwayne


Network like crazy, especially if you come from a non-target school.


Ronak shah
September 8, 2015 10:55 pm

Hi I was just reading the above article and right now I have hard time deciding which one to go for I am from a finance background with CFA level 2 candidate, a 2 year degree at Bombay stock exchange covering global financial markets, grad and currently working for… Read more »

Haseeb Chowdhry
September 10, 2015 7:27 pm
Reply to  Ronak shah

M&A/banking is more lucrative than equity research, and it’s really more a question of what you find more interesting; doing deals or researching on company performance, industries, and being a liaison for capital markets activity on the sell side. There are benefits/costs to both; as an M&A banker you will… Read more »

July 6, 2019 1:57 am
Reply to  Ronak shah

Hi Ronak – I believe the article stated that (IB) is the more glamorous role where analysts are directly responsible for financial modeling working with clients, valuation, etc. Equity research you do not work as hard and you do not directly generate revenue. Either work harder as an IB or… Read more »

Jeff Schmidt
July 6, 2019 5:41 pm
Reply to  Duwayne

Duwayne: This is a simplification of the equity research role. Yes, in general you work less hours, but those can still be quite substantial depending on the firm and the newsflow (for instance, quarterly earnings). Equity research also does plenty of modeling and valuation work but does not have the… Read more »

May 29, 2015 2:08 am

I am an MBA student and confused between selection of Equity Research And IB profile. So I had few questions, Is the working hours in IB will be same throughout the career, or it will come down with the experience as at some point of time excessive working hour will… Read more »

Haseeb Chowdhry
June 8, 2015 10:16 am
Reply to  Abhijeet

Abhijeet – Banking hours decrease over time (>5 years), but they will continue to be intense from your analyst to associate career. IT companies are looking with primarily investment banking or consulting candidates. If you do tech investment banking you should be in good shape to make the transition, but… Read more »

June 9, 2015 2:17 pm

Haseeb thank you so much for the detailed reply. I have so many questions peeping into my mind, but i will try to structure them and ask you. But one thing I am unable to break, as you mentioned network is very important, how do I start and progress ?… Read more »

Haseeb Chowdhry
June 9, 2015 3:53 pm
Reply to  Abhijeet

Abhijeet – make sure you reach out to friends in Finance who you can get connected to – friends know people 🙂

June 12, 2015 3:41 am

Haseeb – How is the financial Analyst profile in the IT companies ?
I am not able to understand what could be the role of Financial Analyst in IT company and is it a good profile in the long run.

Haseeb Chowdhry
June 12, 2015 5:42 pm
Reply to  Abhijeet


Typically analysts have done some sort of accounting/finance (banking/advisory/audit) or consulting prior to joining as a financial analyst / associate at an IT firm. Equity research is also a great skill set for this.

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