What is Intrinsic Value?
Intrinsic Value is the estimated worth of an asset following the objective analysis of its fundamentals and internal data – without reliance on external factors such as prevailing market pricing.
- What is the definition of intrinsic value?
- What are examples of intrinsic valuation methods?
- How can the intrinsic value of stocks be calculated?
- What are the pros/cons of intrinsic value (DCF) methods?
Intrinsic Value Definition
The premise of intrinsic value states that how much an asset is worth can be derived from assessing the asset internally.
For instance, company’s share price can be approximated by assessing the underlying fundamentals:
- Revenue: Historical Trends, Key Drivers of Revenue, Future Growth Outlook
- Margin Profile: Historical Profit Margins (e.g. Gross Margin, Operating Margin, EBITDA Margin, Net Profit Margin), Opportunities for Cost-Cutting, Industry Averages, Future Spending Needs
- Competitive Advantage: “Economic Moat”, Competitive Landscape, Market Size & Market Share
In the context of corporate valuation, the intrinsic value of a company is estimated from its future cash flows, growth potential, and risk.
Intrinsic Value Formula and DCF Model
The discounted cash flow model (DCF) approach calculates the present value (PV) of the company’s expected cash flows (i.e. discounted to the present date), which is the estimated value of the company.
Intrinsic Value Formula
- Value = Σ CF / (1 + r) ^ t
- CF = Future Cash Flows
- r = Discount Rate (WACC, Cost of Equity)
- t = Time Period
Here, all the future cash flows (CF) of the company are discounted using an appropriate discount rate (r) that factors in risk – and then adds all the discounted cash flows together.
Each DCF model relies significantly on discretionary assumptions.
While all assumptions are subjective, if the model assumptions are completely baseless, the estimated value of the company will be far off from its intrinsic (“true”) value.
- > Current Share Price → Undervalued – Potential Buy
- = Current Share Price → “Correct” Market Pricing
- < Current Share Price → Overvalued – Potential Short-Sell
Intrinsic Value Method – Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
Another intrinsic valuation method is the dividend discount model (DDM), although the DDM is not used as frequently as the DCF.
The dividend discount model (DDM) values a company based on the present value (PV) of its future dividends, with assumptions regarding the dividend amount and growth rate.
The intuition behind the DDM is similar to the DCF, however, the major difference is that dividends are used as the cash flows.
Under the DDM, the dividends issued by a company are assumed to be representative of the company’s financial health and future outlook.
The intrinsic value – considering how the obtained valuation is largely independent of market pricing – can uncover undervalued investment opportunities for investors to profit from the mispricing.