What is the Justified P/E Ratio?
The Justified P/E Ratio is a variation of the price-to-earnings ratio linked to the Gordon Growth Model (GGM) in an effort to better understand a company’s underlying performance.
How to Calculate Justified P/E Ratio?
Moreover, if we divide both sides by the EPS – the current share price and the dividend per share (DPS) – we are left with the justified P/E ratio.
Justified P/E Ratio Formula
The formula to calculate the justified P/E ratio is as follows.
Note how the “(DPS / EPS)” component is the dividend payout ratio %.
Since the payout ratio is expressed in the form of a percentage, the GGM formula is effectively converted into the justified P/E ratio.
- Trailing: If the EPS used is the current period historical EPS, the justified P/E is on a “trailing” basis.
- Forward: If the EPS used is the forecasted EPS for a future period, the justified P/E is on a “forward” basis.
Core Value Drivers of the Justified P/E Ratio
The fundamental drivers that impact the justified P/E are the following:
1) Inverse Relationship with Cost of Equity
- Higher Cost of Equity → Lower P/E
- Lower Cost of Equity → Higher P/E
2) Direct Relationship with Dividend Growth Rate
- Higher Dividend Growth Rate → Higher P/E
- Lower Dividend Growth Rate → Lower P/E
3) Direct Relationship with Dividend Payout Ratio (%)
- Higher Payout Ratio % → Higher P/E
- Lower Payout Ratio % → Lower P/E
Therefore, the justified P/E ratio indicates that a company’s share price should rise from a lower cost of equity, higher dividend growth rate, and higher payout ratio.
Justified P/E Ratio Calculator – Excel Template
We’ll now move to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below.
1. Current Share Price Calculation Example
Suppose a company paid a dividend per share (DPS) of $1.00 in the most recent reporting period.
- Dividend Per Share (Do) = $1.00
- Sustainable Dividend Growth Rate = 2%
As for the rest of our model assumptions, the company’s cost of equity is 10% and the sustainable dividend growth rate is 2.0%
- Dividend Growth Rate (g) = 2%
- Cost of Equity (ke) = 10%
If we grow the current dividend by the growth rate assumption, the next year’s dividend is $1.02.
- Next Year Dividend Per Share (D1) = $1.00 * (1 + 2%) = $1.02
Using those assumptions, the justified share price comes out as $12.75.
- Current Share Price (Po) = $1.02 /(10% – 2%) = $12.75
2. Justified P/E Ratio Calculation Example
In the next part, we will calculate the justified P/E ratio.
However, we are missing one assumption, the reported earnings per share (EPS) of our company in the past year – which we’ll assume was $2.00.
- Earnings Per Share (EPS) = $2.00
But if we were to divide both sides by EPS, we can calculate the justified P/E ratio.
- Justified P/E Ratio = [($1.00 / $2.00) * (1 + 2%)] / (10% – 2%) = 6.4x
In closing, we can cross-check the implied share price from the justified P/E and the current share price to ensure our calculation is correct.
After multiplying the justified P/E of 6.4x by the historical EPS of $2.00, we calculate the implied current share price as $12.75, which matches the Po from earlier.
- Implied Current Share Price (Po) = 6.4x * $2.00 = $12.75