What is FCF Margin?
The FCF Margin is a company’s operating cash flow minus its capital expenditures in a specified period, expressed as a percentage of revenue.
How to Calculate Free Cash Flow Margin?
There are several types of free cash flow metrics, such as free cash flow to firm (FCFF) and free cash flow to equity (FCFE), which are intended to measure a company’s discretionary cash flow. The difference between the metrics, however, comes down to the investor group(s) represented.
- Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF): FCFF is the cash generated by a company’s core operations that belongs to all capital providers, such as debt lenders and equity investors.
- Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE): FCFE refers to the residual cash for equity holders after the company’s operating costs (e.g. cost of goods sold and operating expenses like SG&A), re-investment needs, and mandatory financing-related outflows are deducted.
Each variation of free cash flow discussed thus far can be divided by revenue to reflect the proportion of a company’s revenue remaining for the investor group in the form of discretionary cash.
What is a Good FCF Margin?
The FCF margin answers, “For each dollar of revenue generated, what percent gets converted into free cash flow (FCF)?”
Companies with an abundance of free cash flow available tend to operate more efficiently with higher profit margins, while possessing more cash to reinvest in their operations (i.e. funding working capital and capital expenditures).
Thus, the FCF margin portrays the efficiency at which a company can convert its revenue into free cash flow.
Furthermore, the FCF margin can also be useful for understanding a company’s capital intensity, i.e. the company’s reliance on capital expenditures to drive revenue and the percentage contribution from growth versus maintenance Capex.
FCF Margin Formula
The FCF margin formula is as follows.
The starting point of the operating cash flow (OCF) calculation is net income from the accrual-based income statement.
FCF Margin Calculator
We’ll now move on to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below.
FCF Margin Calculation Example
Suppose you’re tasked with calculating the FCF margin of a company that generated $100 million in fiscal year 2022.
Over the same period, the company’s net income was $15 million, D&A and Capex were both $5 million, and the change in net working capital (NWC) was an increase of $3 million.
- Net Income = $15 million
- D&A = $5 million
- Change in NWC = ($3 million)
- Capex = ($5 million)
To calculate the operating cash flow (OCF), we’ll add back the non-cash depreciation expense to net income and subtract the increase in NWC to arrive at an OCF of $17 million.
- Operating Cash Flow (OCF) = $15 million + $5 million – $3 million = $17 million
The next step is to deduct our Capex assumption from our operating cash flow (OCF), which results in our company’s free cash flow (FCF).
- Free Cash Flow (FCF) = $17 million – $5 million = $12 million
In 2022, our company’s free cash flow (FCF) was $12 million, which we’ll divide by the net revenue generated in the corresponding period ($100 million) to arrive at a FCF margin of 12%.
- FCF Margin (%) = $12 million ÷ $100 million = 12.0%